Bordered in the North by the Mediterranean Sea, the East by Tunisia and Libya, in the South by Niger and Mali, at the West by the Western Sahara then Morocco, Algeria is presented in the form of an immense desert.


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  • Capital: Algiers (3 million inhabitants).
  • Surface: 2 381 741 Km² of which 85 % of the territory represents the desert.
  • Population (January 2013): 37 900 000 inhabitants (source: National Statistics Office), urbanized to 60 %;70 % have less than 30 years.
  • Annual demographic growth: 1.53 %.
  • Density: 16.0 hab./Km²;56 % of the population occupy 3% of the territory.
  • Currency: Algerian Dinar;
  • Official language: Arab.
  • National languages: Arab, Tamazight.
  • Business languages: Arab, French, English.
  • Religion:Islam of Malekite rite, Jewish and Christian minorities.
  • National Day: 1 November (Algerian Revolution, 1 November 1958).
  • Independence Day: July 05 (recovery of Independence, July 3, 1962)
  • Religious celebrations : Aid El Fitr, Aid El Adha, Awal Mohrem
  • Legal celebrations : New Year, Labor Day (May 1), Independence Day (July 5), Anniversary of the Revolution (November 1)
  • Regime: Presidential regime (Constitution adopted by the referendum on November 28, 1996).
  • Organization administrative: 48 Wilayas (departments);168 daïras (sub-prefectures);1541 communes.
  • Life expectancy: 70.5 years.


  • Time Zone : GMT +1


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400 000 years BC First human presence according to the discovery with the lake Termiline in Oranie of bones and stone tools of Atlanthrope, contemporary primitive man of Sinanthrope

200 000 years BC Presence of paleolithic hunters
7th Millenium BC Capsiens, ancestors of The Numides, spread in the Maghreb
6000 - 1500 BC Beginning of the breeding, engravings and cave paintings Neolithic
1500 - 1000 BC Amazigh populate the country
1100 - 800 BC Arrival of the Phenicians along the coast

800 - 500 BC Commercial Republic of Carhtage
200 - 148 BC Massinissa, combined with Romans in the Second Punic War, establishes the kingdom of Numidie.Carthage declares war against Rome, triggering the Third Punic War
148 - 105 BC Jugurtha, grand son of Massinissa, reunifies Numidie, is beaten by Rome
105 - 25 BC Reigns of the Kings and the Berber princes as allied and vassal of the Romans.
25 - 24 BC Juba II, King de Numidie then of Mauritania
81 AD The Roman legion installs its headquarters with Lambèse, later the capital of Numidie.The remainder of Algeria, Mauritania, is controlled by Césarée (Cherchell)
323 AD Christianity becomes the official religion under the Emperor Constantin
429 - 533 AD Invasion of the Vandals, beaten into 533 AD.Byzance reconquers the country
533 - 660 AD The Berber Confederations take the interior of the country

647 AD Arrival of the Arabs who spread themselves in the Maghreb and will convert it with Islam
911 - 972 AD Reigns of The Fatimides and creation of the town of Algiers in 935
972 - 1050 The Fatimides leave Algeria for Egypt, leaving the power to The Zirides
1050 - 1060 Invasion of the Ben Hilal come from High Egypt
1060 - 1150 The Almoravides reunify North Africa, seize the power
1505 The Spanish takes over Mers El - Kébir, drives out The Maures
1518 Barberousse, founder of the Regency of Algiers, places the city under the protection of the Ottoman Sultan of Istanbul

June 14, 1830

Landing of French forces on the coast of Sidi Fredj.